Study the etiopathogenesis and management of epistaxis

J. Sreenivasa Rao, U. Srinivasa Rao, T. Sateesh Chandra


Background: The aim of the study was to study the etiopathogenesis, age and sex distribution and management, chemical cautery, anterior and posterior nasal packing, nasal septal surgery, blood transfusion and arterial ligation.

Methods: It is simple random sampling study undertaken to know the etiopathogenesis and management of epistaxis at government general hospital for 2 years.  

Results: The incidence of epistaxis was 1.5%. It was more in males with a male to female ratio of 1:9:1. The age incidence was more in the first and second decades and then increased from the fourth onwards with almost 60% cases belonging to this category. The seasonal incidence was more during cold, dry, winter months (70%). The commonest etiological factor was trauma (42%), followed by the hypertension (24%). 72% of patients had anterior nasal bleeding. The treatment options were divided onto non- surgical and surgical modalities. 86% of the patients were managed by conservative measures like medical treatment (42%) cautery (6%), anterior nasal packing (30%) and posterior nasal packing (4%). 14% of the patients required surgical intervention like septoplasty (2%), excision of bleeding nasal polypus (2%), nasal bone fracture reduction (2%), excision of adenoid cystic carcinoma of nose (2%), removal of rhinolith (92%), excision of angiofibroma of nose (4%).

Conclusions: Anterior bleeding is more common and trauma is an important etiological factor. Majority cases of epistaxis are managable by conservative measures and only few require surgical intervention. 


Epistaxis, Anterior and posterior nasal packing, Anterior bleeding

Full Text:



Lunedo SM, Sass SM, Gomes AB, Kanashiro K, Bortolon L. The prevalence of the major ENT symptoms in an ambulatorial geriatric population. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;12:95-8.

Pritikin JB, Caldarelli DD, Panje WR. Endoscopic ligation of the internal maxillary artery for treatment of intractable posterior epistaxis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1998;107:85-91.

Juselius H. Epistaxis – A clinical study of 1724 patients. J Laryngol Otol. 1979;88:317-27.

Varshney S, Saxena RK. Epistaxis: A retrospective clinical study. Indian J Otrolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;57:125-9.

Akinpelu OV, Amusa YB. A retrospective analysis of aetiology and management of epistaxis in a south-western Nigerian teaching hospital. West Afr J Med. 2009;28(3):165-8.

Hussain G. Evaluation of aetiology and efficacy of management protocol of epistaxis. J Ayub Med Cell. 2006;18(4):62-5.

Sinha BK, Birua C, Kumar D. Clinical Study of Etiopathogenesis And Management of Epistaxis. J Dental Med Sci. 2017;16(1):49-52.

Monjas-Canovas I. Epidemiology of epistaxis admitted to a tertiary hospital. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2010;61(1):41-7.

Pollice PA, Yude MG. A retrospective review of 249 hospitalised patients with epistaxis. AJO Head Neck Surg. 1997: 49-53.

Razdan U, Raizada RM. Efficacy of conservative treatment modalities used in epistaxis. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;56(1):20-3.