A clinico-radiological study of anatomical variations of nose and para-nasal sinuses in chronic rhinosinusitis patients


  • Daya Shankar Department of ENT & Head Neck Surgery, Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Barabanki, UP, India
  • Sunil Kumar Department of ENT & Head Neck Surgery, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India
  • H.P. Singh Department of ENT & Head Neck Surgery, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India
  • Veerendra Verma Department of ENT & Head Neck Surgery, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India
  • Anupam Mishra Department of ENT & Head Neck Surgery, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India




Anatomical variations, Paranasal sinuses, Chronic rhinosinusitis, CT scan, Nasal endoscopy


Background: There are a lot of anatomical variations in para-nasal sinuses that are responsible for various sinus pathologies. CT scan of paranasal sinuses prior to functional endoscopic sinus surgery has become extremely important to know the anatomy and its variations to avoid complications during surgery.

Methods: This study was performed in 100 patients at King George’s Medical University, Lucknow UP, India to compare the anatomical variations between nasal endoscopy and CT scan findings. The outcome measures were deviated nasal septum, paradoxical middle turbinate, concha bullosa, medialized/lateralised uncinate process, pneumatized uncinate process, large ethmoid bulla, accessory ostium, Agger nasii cells, Haller’s cells and Onodi cells.  

Results: In this study the age of the patients were 30.00±9.56 yrs. with male to female ratio 1.9:1. Deviated nasal septum was the most common anatomical abnormality (70%) followed by large bulla ethmoidalis 17%. Occurrence of different types of special cells were studied which are better visualized on coronal CT scan images. Among these cells Agger nasi was the most common variety (15%) followed by Haller’s cells (11%) and Onodi cell (3%). Concha bullosa was present in 8%.

Conclusions: The importance of CT and nasal endoscopy can be seen in patients with persistent symptoms to identify the anatomical variations that may responsible for the development of chronic sinus disease. In cases of sinusitis patients all the para-nasal sinus should be properly investigated to avoid complications. 


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