A retrospective study of demographic profile of keloid over the pinna in central Karnataka
Keywords:Keloid over the pinna, Ear piercing, Demographic profile, Helix of the pinna
Background: Unusually higher number of patients was observed to seek medical attention for keloids over the pinna in a geographical area in Central Karnataka. This study was conducted to find the demographic profile of such patients.
Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in two tertiary care centres, in which medical case files of all patients with documented diagnosis of keloid over the pinna between January 2013 to October 2017, were reviewed for their demographic profile and clinical presentation.
Results: A total of 482 patients had presented with keloids of pinna in the duration studied. Of these 474 were females and 8 were males, with a mean age of 29 years. The most common age group of patients (37.3%) was 21 to 30 years followed by 31 to 40 years (25.7%). The most common antecedent event to keloid formation was piercing of the helix of the pinna. The commonest location of keloid formation in the pinna was found to be helix of the pinna (92.7%) The mean time interval between the antecedent event and keloid formation was 14 months.
Conclusions: Higher number of patients seeks medical attention for keloid over the pinna in geographical region of central Karnataka. Most of them had undergone ear piercing and had presented in their early adulthood. Ear piercing over the helix of pinna was more commonly associated with keloid formation. Further studies are intended to be done on the etiological factors for higher incidence of keloids and feasible preventive measures.
Simplot TC, Hoffman HT: Comparison between cartilage and soft tissue ear piercing complications. Am J Otolaryngol. 1998;19:305-10.
Sand M, Sand D, Brors D, Altmeyer P, Mann B, Bechara FG. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear. Head Face Med. 2008;4(1):2.
Chowdri NA, Mattoo MMA, Darzi MA. Keloids and hypertrophic scars: results with intra-operative and serial postoperative corticosteroid injection therapy. Aust N Z J Surg. 1999;69:655-9.
Botwood N, Lewanski C, Lowdell C. The risks of treating keloids with radiotherapy. Br J Radiol. 1999;72:1222-4.
Venkatramani H, Yadav P. Complete excision with staged reconstruction in the treatment of earlobe keloid after ear piercing. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;104:1574-5.
Marneros AG, Norris JE, Olsen BR, Reichenberger E. Clinical genetics of familial keloids. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137(11):1429-34.
Ramakrishnan KM, Thomas KP, Sundararajan CR.Study of 1,000 patients with keloids in South India. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1974;53(3):276-80.
Staley R, Fitzgibbon JJ, Anderson C. Auricular infections caused by high ear piercing in adolescents. Pediatrics. 1997;99:610-1.
Bashir MM, Afzal S, Khan FA, Abbas M. Factors Associated with Postpiercing Auricular Cartilage Keloids. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2011;21(10):606-10.
Brissett AE, Sherris DA. Scar contractures, hypertrophic scars, and keloids. Facial Plast Surg. 2001;17(4):263-72.
Lee SS, Yosipovitch G, Chan YH, Goh CL. Pruritus, pain, and small nerve fiber function in keloids: a controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51(6):1002-6.
Gauglitz GG, Korting HC, Pavicic T, Ruzicka T, Jeschke MG. Hypertrophic scarring and keloids: pathomechanisms and current and emerging treatment strategies. Mol Med. 2011;17(1-2):113-25.
Child FJ, Fuller LC, Higgins EM, Du Vivier AWP. A study of the spectrum of skin disease occurring in a black population in southeast London. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:512-7.
Moshref SS, Mufti ST. Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars: Comparative Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study. Med Sci. 2010;17:3–22.
Aköz T, Gideroğlu K, Akan. Combination of different techniques for the treatment of earlobe keloids. M. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2002;26(3):184-8.