A study on hearing screening using oto-acoustic emissions in newborns delivered by normal vaginal delivery and lower segment caesarean section


  • Swathi Appathurai dnb studiesDepartment of ENT and Head Neck Surgery, JLN Hospital and Research Centre, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India
  • Ashwin Ashok Jaiswal Department of ENT and Head Neck Surgery, JLN Hospital and Research Centre, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India
  • Subodh Kumar Saha Department of Paediatrics, JLN Hospital and Research Centre, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India
  • Arun Kumar Dora Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, JLN Hospital & Research Center, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India
  • Prachi Mene Department of ENT and Head Neck Surgery, JLN Hospital and Research Centre, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India




TEOAE, Newborns, Vaginal delivery, Lower segment caesarean section


Background: Hearing is one of the most complex systems of the human body and is a skill involved in the human social evolution. It has been estimated that around 900 million people by the end of 2050, will probably suffer from hearing loss. Our study aims to find out the correlation between the mode of delivery and the effect it has on newborn hearing screening.

Methods: The Prospective study on 136 Newborn babies who were delivered in JLN Hospital & Research Centre, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh during October 2020 to August 2021. After obtaining detailed history all newborns underwent TEOAE screening and the data were then compared with the available literature.

Results: We observed normal vaginal delivery newborns have passed the test by 97.91% and 89.58% when compared to LSCS delivered infants 97.15% and 86.36% in screening and diagnostic frequency respectively. COVID-19 infection was seen in 2.94% of pregnant mothers in the 3rd trimester. There were no babies who required BERA in our study

Conclusions: Normal vaginally delivered newborns have higher pass rate in TEOAE test when compared with LSCS delivered babies. Covid-19 infection in antenatal mother can influence the outcome in 1st TEOAE tests. The pass rate in TEOAE hearing test in the screening frequency is found to be greater when compared with diagnostic frequencies. In a developing country like India, Universal hearing screening programs needs to be reached out to the most remote parts of the country, in order to identify at risk infants for hearing loss.


Litovsky R. Development of the auditory system. Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;129:55-72.

Mathers C, Smith A, Concha M. Global burden of hearing loss in the year 2000. Glob Burden Dis. 2000; 18(4):1-30.

Garg S, Chadha S, Malhotra S, Agarwal AK. Deafness: Burden, prevention and control in India. Natl Med J India. 2009;22(2):79-81.

Olusanya BO. Making targeted screening for infant hearing loss an effective option in less developed countries. Int J Pediatr Otorhinol. 2011;75(3):316-21.

Yoshinaga-Itano C. Levels of evidence: universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) and early hearing detection and intervention systems (EHDI). J Communicat Disord. 2004;37(5):451-65.

Smolkin T, Mick O, Dabbah M, Blazer S, Grakovsky G, Gabay N, et al. Birth by cesarean delivery and failure on first otoacoustic emissions hearing test. Pediatrics. 2012;130(1):e95-100,

Brown S. Otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery. 8th ed. USA: CRC Press; 2018:4.

Jewel J, Varghese PV, Singh T, Varghese A. Newborn hearing screening experience at a tertiary hospital in northwest India. Int J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;2(5):211.

Rajkumar RS. A Study on Assessment and Analysis of New Born Hearing Screening by OAE. Pediatrics. 2010;95(1):e32-9.

Walch C, Anderhuber W, Köle W, Berghold A. Bilateral sensorineural hearing disorders in children: etiology of deafness and evaluation of hearing tests. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;53(1):31-8.

Yücel A, Cüneyt UĞ. Our newborn hearing screening results of infants with congenital hypothyroidism. Türkiye Çocuk Hastalıkları Dergisi. 2012;32:1-5.

Erdogdu S. Our newborn hearing screening results. North Clin Istanbul J. 2021;8(2):167.

Kulkarni S, Burse KS, Bharath M, Bharadwaj C, Virendra MG. Study of hearing loss in infants using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. J Head Neck Physic Surg. 2015;3(3):105.

Oghan F, Guvey A, Topuz MF, Erdogan O, Guvey H. Effects of vaginal birth versus caesarean section on hearing screening results in a large series from the Aegean region. Int J Audiol. 2020;59(4):310-5.

Olarte M, Rey MC, Beltran AP, Guerrero D, Suárez-Obando F, López G, et al. Detection of hearing loss in newborns: Definition of a screening strategy in Bogotá, Colombia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019;122:76-81.

Kadhim S, Al Deen LD, Al-Sarhan HW. Early detection of hearing defects among newborn in Baghdad City. Iraqi J Commu Med. 2017;30(4):12-8.

Yücel A, Alataş N, Yücel H, Güllüev M, Özsöz E, Uğur C. Newborn hearing screening results of refugees living in our city and the factors affecting the results. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019;123:187-90.

Korres SG, Balatsouras DG, Gkoritsa E, Kandiloros D, Korres GS, Ferekidis E. The effect of very low birth weight on otoacoustic emissions. ENT. 2007; 3(1):15-20.

Ohl C, Dornier L, Czajka C, Chobaut JC, Tavernier L. Newborn hearing screening on infants at risk. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(12):1691-5.

Zhou JH, Yu K, Ding H, Zhu ZH, Han LH, Zhang T. A clinical study on gestational diabetes mellitus and the hearing of newborns. Diab Metab Syndr Obes Targ Ther. 2021;14:2879.

Handokoa WB, Etikaa E, Hariantoa H, Purnami P. Effects of low-birth-weight babies on cochlear function in newborns at Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Malaysia J Med Health Sci. 2021;2(17): 234-8.

John M, Balraj A, Kurien M. Neonatal screening for hearing loss: pilot study from a tertiary care centre. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;61(1):23-6.

Bhatt J, Chhangte L. Accuracy of OAE and BERA to Detect the Incidence of Hearing Loss in Newborn. Int J Sci Res Public. 2015;2:1-6.

Smolkin T, Mick O, Dabbah M, Blazer S, Grakovsky G, Gabay N, et al. Birth by cesarean delivery and failure on first otoacoustic emissions hearing test. Pediatrics. 2012;130(1):e95-100.

Chaudhari G, Aiyer RG. A comparative study of hearing screening using otoacoustic emissions in newborns delivered by normal vaginal route and by LSCS (lower segment cesarian section). Schol J Appl Med Sci. 2017;5(6):2060-3.

Singh PK, Kumar N, Kumar D, Shrivastava N, Kumar A. A prospective study for hearing screening of 4356 newborns by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and brainstem evoked response audiometry: A study of high-risk factors for hearing loss. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017;5(4):1554-7.






Original Research Articles