Lateral and crestal sinus lift complications: a retrospective comparative study




Lateral sinus lift, Impaired osseointegration, Sinus lift complications, Sinus membrane perforation


Background: To explore the relationship between the operative methods for sinus lifting and related intra-and postoperative complications.

Methods: 47 cases of sinus lift were traced, with 118 implants placed. 83 of them after lateral sinus lifting and 35 with a crestal approach. Presence of bone septum, thickness of the sinus membrane, bone density, and the height of residual bone were tracked out preoperatively, as prerequisites of complications during and after implant placement in the distal parts of the maxilla.

Results: In eight cases (17.02%), sinus membrane perforations occurred. The most common location of the tearing was close to the lower medial edge of the bone window. After fixing perforation, a total of 37 implants were placed under these conditions. In three of them (5.41%), poor osseointegration was found after six mounts. Statistically significant impact of the thickness of the sinus membrane in cases of membrane tearing was found.

Conclusions: Increasing the height of the available bone in the distal areas of the maxilla by elevating the maxillary sinus floor is a safe and predictable procedure. Both the crestal and lateral approaches have a high success rate. All possible complications during the operation need to be analyzed in advance, and when they occur, it is mandatory to fix them adequately. Therefore, a careful consideration of the local and systemic conditions affecting implant survival is essential for successful implant treatment.


Sgaramella N, Tartaro G, D'Amato S, Santagata M, Colella G. Implant Displacement into Maxillary Sinus. Clin Implant Dentistr Rel Res. 2016;18(1):62-72.

Thiebot N, Hamdani A, Blanchet F, Dame M, Tawfik S, Mbapou E et al. Implant failure rate and the prevalence of associated risk factors: a 6-year retrospective observational survey. J Oral Med Oral Surg 2022;28(2):1-8.

Virnik S, Cueni L, Kloss-Brandstätter A. Is one-stage lateral sinus lift and implantation safe in severely atrophic maxillae? Results of a comparative pilot study. Int J Implant Dent. 2023;(9):6.

Díaz-Olivares LA, Cortés-Bretón Brinkmann J, Martínez-Rodríguez N, Martínez-González JM, López-Quiles J, Leco-Berrocal I et al. Management of Schneiderian membrane perforations during maxillary sinus floor augmentation with lateral approach in relation to subsequent implant survival rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Implant Dent. 2021;7(1):1-13.

Bathla SC, Fry RR, Majumdar K. Maxillary sinus augmentation. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2018;22:468-73.

Moreno V, Gonzalez de Rivera A, Gil HS, Mifsut RS. Complication rate in 200 consecutive sinus lift procedures: guidelines for prevention and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:892-901.

Xia X, Wei ZY, Wei HW. Displacement of the full body of a dental implant into the sinus space without membrane perforation and subsequent osseointegration: a case report. J Int Med Res. 2021;49:3000605211060674.

Jamcoski V, Faot F, Marcello-Machado R, Melo A, Fontão F. 15-Year Retrospective Study on the Success Rate of Maxillary Sinus Augmentation and Implants: Influence of Bone Substitute Type, Presurgical Bone Height, and Membrane Perforation during Sinus Lift. BioMed Res Int. 2023;13:9144661.

Bennardo F, Barone S, Buffone C, Colangeli W, Antonelli A, Giudice A. Removal of dental implants displaced into the maxillary sinus: a retrospective single-center study. Head Face Med. 2022;18(1):18-34.

Menchini-Fabris GB, Toti P, Crespi G, Covani U, Crespi R. Distal Displacement of Maxillary Sinus Anterior Wall Versus Conventional Sinus Lift with Lateral Access: A 3-Year Retrospective Computerized Tomography Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(1):7199.

Dragonas P, Foote M, Yu Q, Palaiologou A, Maney P. One-year implant survival following lateral window sinus augmentation using plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF): a retrospective study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2020;25(4):e474-80.

Lie S, Leung C, Claessen R, Merten H-A, Kessler P. Implant survival after graftless sinus floor augmentation in highly atrophic maxillae: a randomized controlled trial in a split mouth study. Int J Implant Dent. 2021;7:100-7.

Seong W-J, Barczak M, Basu J, Olin P, Conrad H. Prevalence of Sinus Augmentation Associated With Maxillary Posterior Implants. J Oral Implantol. 2013;39(6):680-8.

An JH, Park SH, Han JJ, Seunggon J, Min-Suk K, Hong-Ju P et al. Treatment of dental implant displacement into the maxillary sinus. Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg, 2017;39(1):1-5.

Li N, Jiang Z, Pu R, Zhu D, Yang G. Implant failure and associated risk factors of transcrestal sinus floor elevation: A retrospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2023;34(1):66-77.

Fusari P, Doto M, Chiapasco M. Removal of a Dental Implant Displaced into the Maxillary Sinus by Means of the Bone Lid Technique, Case Rep Dentistr. 2013;5:260707.

Marin S, Kirnbauer B, Rugani P, Payer M, Jakse N. Potential risk factors for maxillary sinus membrane perforation and treatment outcome analysis. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2019;21:66-72.

Monje A, Diaz KT, Aranda L, Insua A, Garcia-Nogales A, Wang HL. Schneiderian Membrane Thickness and Clinical Implications for Sinus Augmentation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analyses. J Periodontol. 2016;87(2):888-99.

Basma H, Saleh I, Abou-Arraj R, Li P, Benavides E, Wang HL, Chang HL. Association between lateral wall thickness and sinus membrane perforation during lateral sinus elevation: A retrospective study. Int J Oral Implantol (Berl). 2021;14:77-85.

Lopez MA, Andreasi Bassi M, Confalone L, Carinci F. Maxillary sinus floor elevation via crestal approach: the evolution of the hydraulic pressure technique. J Craniofac Surg. 2014;25:e127-32.

Di Stefano DA, Arosio P, Pagnutti S, Vinci R, Gherlone EF. Distribution of Trabecular Bone Density in the Maxilla and Mandible. Implant Dent. 2019;28(4):340-8.






Original Research Articles