Cholesteatoma of the middle ear: about 50 cases in Donka University Hospital
Keywords:Cholesteatoma, Chronic otorrhea, Mastoidectomy, Sub-Saharan Africa
Background: Cholesteatoma of the middle ear remains a dangerous chronic otitis that can potentially lead to serious complications. The treatment remains exclusively surgical. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology and anatomical functional results of surgery for middle ear cholesteatoma.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of retrospective data collection over 5 years (from 01 January 2016 to 30 December 2020) and conducted at the ENT and head and neck surgery department of Donka University Hospital.
Results: We collected 50 cases of cholesteatoma. The prevalence was 1.33%. The mean age was 33.58±18.07 years. The sex ratio was 0.92. Purulent otorrhea (96%) and hearing loss (84%) were the main symptoms. We noted 56% pocket retraction and 36% tympanic perforation. Conductive hearing loss accounted for 76% of cases. The CT scan of the rocks noted 69.89% of filling associated with the lysis of the walls of the middle ear. Masto-atticotomy associated with tympanoplasty was performed in 78.89% of cases. Encapsulated cholesteatoma was the most frequent (66%). The epitympanum was its elective seat (44%). The ossicular chain was lysed in 76%. The incus was the most affected ossicle (66%). Ossiculoplasty was performed in 66%. The postoperative course was simple (74%). Medium and long-term follow-up revealed normal anatomical restoration of the neo-tympanum in 94%. Hearing improvement was noted in all our patients with an average hearing gain of 10-30 dB in 52%.
Conclusions: The treatment was exclusively surgical. However, we obtained largely satisfactory anatomical and functional results.
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