Risk factors of acute otitis media among infants in a tertiary care hospital in Rawalpindi: a descriptive cross-sectional study


  • Tayyab Mumtaz Khan Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Jehanzeb Akram Punjab Rangers Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Fahad Muneer Punjab Rangers Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Daniyal Ilyas Punjab Rangers Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Hafiz Muhammad Ahmed Punjab Rangers Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Asghar Khan Punjab Rangers Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Ahsan Naeem Rahbar Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Umair Hafeez Rahbar Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Fareena Nawab Rahbar Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Waleed Nasir Punjab Rangers Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan




AOM, Risk factors, Infant, Tertiary care, Hospital, Rawalpindi, Descriptive, Cross-sectional


Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is the second most common disease of childhood. Many factors play role in the causation of AOM. However, the research-based data on risk factors for AOM in infants is still inadequate. Objective were this study aimed to determine the risk factors for AOM in infants with AOM.

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 189 infant patients with AOM in the otorhinolaryngology outpatient department of allied hospital of Rawalpindi medical university, Rawalpindi. Established inclusion and exclusion criteria and non-probability convenience sampling technique were utilized for the selection of patients. After taking informed consent, data were collected through a self-adapted questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was accomplished through SPSS version 25.

Results: AOM was more common among patients who had, an age group with a range of 9-12 months (41.28%), male gender (55.02%), lower birth order (49.73%), mothers with illiterate educational status (53.96%), mothers with the job (57.14%), lower socioeconomic status (59.25%), used bottle-feeding (46.56%), supine position during feeding (61.37%), used a pacifier (67.73%), poor feeding hygiene (58.21%), unvaccinated pneumococcal status (57.15%), and large family (63.50%). In the case of family ear infection and passive smoking, AOM incidence was more frequent among infants whose family had no history of ear infection (69.85%) and no smoking exposure (53.44%).

Conclusions: In short, the age group with a range of 9-12 months, male gender, low birth order, illiterate mothers, mothers with the job, lower socioeconomic status, bottle-feeding, supine feeding position, pacifier use, poor feeding hygiene, unvaccinated pneumococcal status, and large family size, all raise the risk of AOM incidence in infants.


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