Aetiological factors of hoarseness of voice in patients attending at tertiary hospital Kashmir


  • Syed Waseem Abbas Department of Health, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Javaid Ahmed Naikoo Department of ENT, GMC, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Reshaib Maqsood Department of ENT, GMC, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Auqfeen Nisar Department of Health, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Rauf Ahmed Department of ENT, GMC, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India



Hoarseness, Laryngitis, Tuberculosis


Background: Voice is an auditory perceptual term that means the audible sound produced by the larynx, which embodies such parameters as pitch, loudness, quality and variability. Hoarseness generally refers to a change in voice quality that may be manifested as a voice that sounds breathy, strained, rough, raspy, tremorous, strangled, or weak, or a voice that has a higher or lower pitch. The objective of the study was to evaluate the aetiological factors of hoarseness of voice.

Methods: This is a prospective, non- randomized and longitudinal study conducted from July 2019 to July 2020 in department of Otorhinolaryngology of SMHS Hospital, Kashmir, India. All the patients with history of hoarseness underwent clinical examination, routine as well as special investigation to find out the diagnosis. The final results were analyzed by simple manual analysis with frequency and percentage using Microsoft Excel software 2007.

Results: There were total 140 patients included in the study. Among them the age groups of 21 – 30 years and 31-40 years were mainly sufferers from hoarseness. Similarly, among 140 patients 100 (71.45%) were males whereas 40 (28.6%) were females with male to female ratio of 2.5. The most common cause as per the distribution was acid peptic laryngitis with frequency of 37.8% whereas papillary carcinoma of thyroid and papilloma of vocal cord accounts for only 0.4% each.

Conclusions: There was etiological variation in hoarseness ranging from simple laryngitis to malignancies. So it is important not to ignore the hoarseness and precise history, examination and investigations should be done.  


Kataria G, Saxena A, Singh B, Bhagat S, Singh R. Hoarseness of voice: Etiological spectrum. Online J Otolaryngol. 2015;5(1):13-22.

Feierabend RH, Malik SN. Hoarseness in Adults. Am Fam Physician. 2009;80(4):363-70.

Rosen CA, Anderson D, Murry T. Evaluating hoarseness: keeping your patient’s voice healthy. Am Fam Physician. 1998;57(11):2775-82.

Ramesh P. Spectrum of Etiological Factors for Hoarseness: A Retrospective Study in a Teaching Hospital. Glob J Oto. 2016;1(3):1-4.

Wani AA, Rehman A, Hamid S, Akhter M, Baseena S. Benign Mucosal Fold Lesion as a Cause of Hoarseness of Voice - A Clinical Study. Otolaryngology. 2012;2:120.

Dettelbach M, Eibling DE, Johnson JT. Hoarseness from viral laryngitis to glottic cancer. Postgrad Med. 1994; 95:143.

Chagnon FP, Moulder DS. Laryngotracheal trauma. chest surg din north Am. 1996;6:73-8.

Smit CE, Van Leeuwen JA, Vliegen LM, Devriese PP, Semen A, Tan J et al. Gastropharyngeal and gastroesophageal reflux in globus and hoarseness. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000;126(7):827-30.

Woodson GE, Blitzer A. Neurologic evaluation of the larynx and pharynx. In Cummings OW. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery edition, St. Lous Mosby. 1995;61-17.

Ramazan HH, Tarazi ARE & Baroudy FM. Laryngeal tuberculosis presentation of 16 cases and review of literature. J Otolaryngol. 1993;22:39-41.

Garrett CG, Ossoff RH. Hoarseness. Medical Clinics of North America. 1999;83(1):115-23.

Baitha S, Raizada RM, Singh AK, Puttewar MP, Chaturvedi VN. Clinical profile of hoarseness of voice. Indian J of Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;54(1):14-8.

Kumar H, Seth S, Kishore D. Aetiological study of 100 cases of hoarseness of voice. Gujrat J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;8(1):23.

Saeed M, Mian AF. Hoarseness of voice. Professional Med J. 2006;13(4):504-7.

Khan FA, Jawaid I, Hasnny SF, Iqbal H, Musani A, Sohail Z et al. Clinical profile of patients with presenting hoarseness. Ann Abbasi Shaheed Hosp Karachi Med Dent Coll. 2010;1:213-15.

Banjara H, Varsha M, Singh D, Gupta A. Hoarseness of voice: A Retrospective Study of 251 Cases. Int J Phonosurg Laryngol. 2011;1(1):21-7.

Brodnitz FS. Goals, results and limitations of vocal rehabilitation. Arch Otolaryngol. 1963;77:148-56.

Aslam M. Hoarseness and laryngeal pathology. Pakistan J Pathol. 1996;7(2):20-3.

Iqbal K, Udaipurwala IH, Khan SA, Jan AA, Jalisi M. Laryngeal involvement in pulmonary tuberculosis. J Pak Med Assoc. 1996;46(12):274-6.

Kumar H, Seth S. Clinicopathological profile of hoarseness of the voice. Int J Otolaryngol. 2011;13(1).

Maruyama K, Sakai H, Miyazawa H, Toda N, Iinuma Y, Mochizuki N et al. Sore throat and hoarseness after total intravenous anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 2004;92(4):541-3.

Benuett MH, Isert PR. Post operative sore throat and hoarseness following tracheal intubation using air or saline to inflate the cuff: a randomized controlled trial. Anaesth Intensive care. 2000;28(4):408-13.

Jones MW, Catling S, Evans E. Hoarseness after tracheal intubation. Anesthesia. 1992;47(3):213-6.

Mohsin A, Zaidi NA, Bajwa AH. Complications of endotracheal intubation in open heart surgery patients. Ann King Edward Med Uni. 2000;2(6):176-8.

Ahmed B, Hussain T. Clinical presentation of hypothyroidism. J Coil Physicians Surg Pak. 2001;11:676-8.






Original Research Articles