Mucormycosis during the second wave of COVID-19 in India


  • Mudit Mittal Department of ORL and HNS, Ankush Medicare and Health Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • Rakesh Srivastava Department of Laryngology, Raj ENT center, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India



COVID-19, Hypercoagulability, Mucormycosis, Orbital cellulitis, Cavernous sinus thrombosis


Background: The so called “black fungus epidemic” struck India during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Large numbers of patients were being reported, posing a challenging situation for clinicians. The treatment options were limited, and rescue surgery was mutilating, anti-fungal medicines became short of supply soon, prognosis remained poor. Objective was to understand a unifying pathophysiological picture with a framework to check this post Covid epidemic, especially in context with South-east-Asia. 

Methods: The clinical, radiological, surgical data of patients presented with symptoms of rhino-orbito-cerebral complications, collected and analyzed.

Results: 80.9% of operated patient had thrombosis of identifiable major vessels. The 76.7% patient had cerebral venous thrombosis. The 30% patient had internal carotid artery narrowing on imaging. Fungal staining was positive in 72% patient. We found level of D dimer was high in 81.3% patients and 83.9% patients had blood sugar level raised at the time of presentation.

Conclusions: Hyper thrombotic state of COVID-19 in diabetes and injudicious use of steroids predisposed susceptible patients to thromboembolic phenomena, leading to necrosis of tissue and secondary fungal infection.


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Original Research Articles