A comparative study on effects of diabetes on auditory functions as measured by BERA and DPOAE
Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, Hearing loss, BERA, DPOAE, OAE, neuropathy, Auditory dysfunction, Hyperglycemia
Background: Diabetes is prevalent endocrine disorder associated with many complications. However, the link between auditory dysfunctions and diabetes is still vague. The current study aims to correlate auditory dysfunction caused by DM, measured by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) & brainstem evoked otoacoustic emissions (BERA).
Methods: This is a descriptive (comparative) study in which auditory functions of 100 diabetics and 100 matched non-diabetics were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) & brainstem evoked otoacoustic emissions (BERA). The data for diabetic and non- diabetic group was compared and analysed. Effects of age of individual on auditory functions were also analysed separately using suitable statistical tests. The data collected was analysed with suitable statistical tests were performed with a significance level of ɑ=0.1 using SPSS 2.0 software.
Results: The demographical variable was comparable in both the groups. The results showed decline in free field hearing, which are further adversely affected by duration of diabetes and patient’s age. The pure tone thresholds were not significantly higher in diabetics; however the thresholds were significantly higher in diabetics in older age groups. The hearing loss appear at early age in diabetics but gradually become indistinguishable from age related hearing loss.
Conclusions: Although the auditory dysfunction can be linked to diabetes, but are usually not detectable at earliest stages with routine clinical and audiological tests. The DPOAE and BERA have role to play in monitoring of the auditory dysfunction.
Bhaskar KN, Chalihadan S, Vaswani R, Rehaman CPA. Clinical and audiometric assessment of hearing loss in diabetes mellitus. Int J Scientific Study. 2014;2(4):2-17.
World Health Organisation. Diabetes, Fact sheet. WHO media centre. 2015. Available at http: // www.who.Int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/. Accessed on 2 January2017.
Shera CA, Abdala C. Section I: Otoacoustic emissions—mechanisms and applications .In: Kelly L. Tremblay, editor. Translational perspectives in auditory neuroscience hearing across the life span - assessment and disorders. Plural publishing; 2012.
Gorga MP, Neely ST, Bergman B, Beauchaine KL, Kaminski JR, Peters J, et al. Otoacoustic emissions from normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects: distortion product responses. J Acoust Soc Am. 1993;93:2050-60.
Rajendran S, Anandhalakshmi, Mythili B, Viswa. Evaluation of the Incidence of Sensorineural hearing loss in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4):982-87.
Dabrowski M, Mielnik-Niedzielska G, Nowakowski A. Involvement of the auditory organ in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Endokrynol Pol. 2011;62(2):138-44.
Gupta R, Aslam M, Hasan SA, Siddiqi SS. Type- 2 diabetes mellitus and auditory brainstem response- a hospital based study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2010;14(1):9-11.
Shatdai C, Karki P, Baja BK, Patel S. Evaluation of brainstem auditory evoked potential in diabetes. Journal of universal college of medical sciences. 2013;1(2):8-12.
Takkar J, Manchanda KC, Bansal B, Gahlot S. Grover GS. Evaluation of auditory neuropathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus using brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Research in Health Sciences. 2013;1(2):74-9.
Fernandes LC, Casais-Silva L, Ladeia AM. Dysfunction of the peripheral and central auditory pathway in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Mellitus. 2012;2(1):76-81.
Di Nardo W, Ghirlanda G, Paludetti G, Cercone S, Saponara C, Del Ninno M, et al. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and selective sensorineural loss in IDDM. Diabetes care. 1998;21(8):1317-21.
Sharma B. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine‑structure: An insight into the ear asymmetries. Indian Journal of Otology. 2014;20(2):56-9.
Lisowska G, Namyslowski G, Morawski K, Strojek K. Early identification of hearing impairment in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Otol & Neurotol. 2001;22(3):316-20.
Abo-Elfetoh NM, Mohamed ES, Tag LM, El-Baz MA, Ez Eldeen ME. Auditory dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with poor versus good glycemic control. Egypt J Otolaryngol. 2015;31:162-9.
Eren E, Harman E, Arslanoglu S, Onal K. Effects of type 2 diabetes on otoacoustic emissions and the medial olivocochlear reflex. Otolaryngol- Head and Neck Surg. 2014;150(6):1033-9.
Bayindir T, Erdem T, Uze E, Toplu Y, San R, Ozturan O. Evaluation of the auditory effects in controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus using otoacoustic emissions. Journal of Turgut Ozal medical center. 2010;17(4):337-41.