DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20205084

Traumatic cavernous internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting with massive epistaxis-a morbid clinical entity

Santosh Kumar Swain

Abstract


Epistaxis is commonly encountered by clinicians in emergency department. However, severe and recurrent epistaxis is very uncommon especially that arise from the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysm. Traumatic cavernous internal carotid pseudoaneurysm is a rare cause of the epistaxis but is a fatal and life-threatening clinical condition if left untreated. Massive epistaxis following head injury should alert the clinician to rule out traumatic cavernous ICA pseudoaneurysm. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the cavernous part of the ICA is a challenging clinical entity both in diagnosis and treatment. This clinical diagnosis may be suspected in case of patient with history of head injury, massive recurrent epistaxis and delayed onset of blindness. Massive epistaxis after head trauma should alert the clinician for possible cavernous ICA pseudoaneurysm. Carotid angiography confirms the site of pseudoaneurysm. The treatment options are endovascular stent and coil embolization, arterial balloon occlusion and surgical trapping. Timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition give a favorable outcome. In this review article, we discuss the epidemiology, etiopathology, clinical presentations, investigations and current treatment of the traumatic cavernous ICA pseudoaneurysm.


Keywords


Internal carotid artery, Pseudoaneurysm, Carotid angiography, Endovascular coiling

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References


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