Etiological profile and correlation of radiological and endoscopic modalities for evaluation of nasal obstruction: a hospital-based study


  • Kavita Sachdeva Department of ENT, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • Ruchir Varshney Department of ENT, Chirayu Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India



CT-PNS, Nasal endoscopy, Nasal obstruction


Background: Nasal obstruction causes considerable disease burden on our society and is frequently under-treated and under-evaluated. Aim of the study was to establish etiological profile and evaluate correlation of radiological and endoscopic modalities for evaluation of nasal obstruction.

Methods: Ninety patients with nasal obstruction presenting to OPD of a tertiary hospital were evaluated with history/physical examination, rhinoscopy and radiological assessment by X-ray of para nasal sinuses (PNS), Computerized tomography of PNS (CT-PNS) and nasal endoscopy.

Results: Inflammatory polyps were most common cause (33%) of nasal obstruction in our population which was young in age (20-40 years), the obstruction being predominantly of short duration (<10 months). CT-PNS had significantly better performance than X-ray PNS in detection of nasal polyp and cyst. There was good agreement between CT-PNS and nasal endoscopy for most of the cases. Polyps and mucosal oedema had significantly higher detection rates by endoscopy while CT-PNS was better in assessment of DNS.

Conclusion: CT-PNS and Nasal endoscopy are superior for assessment of nasal obstruction and complement each other.



Jessen M, Malm L. Definition, prevalence and development of nasal obstruction. Allergy. 1997;52(40):3-6.

Aarya A, Bisht RS. A study of causes of nasal obstruction in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand. Indian J Anatomy Surg Head, Neck Brain. 2016;2(2):40-44

Sood VP. Chronic Rhinosinusitis, ECAB Kindle Edition, Elsevier India, 2012;314.

Sinha DK, Nasal and sinus endoscopy in opaque maxillary antrum. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;45(3):145-6.

Kamal RH. Nasal endoscopy in chronic maxillary sinusitis. J Laryngol Otol. 1989;103(3): 275-8.

Venkatchalan VP, Bhal A. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery- A new surgical concept in the management of chronic sinusitis. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999; 52(1):13-6.

Maduforo CO, Ibinaiye P, Onotai L. Plain radiographic pattern of chronic sinusitis in Port Harcourt: our recent experience. Int J Med Medical Sci. 2013;1:317-20.

Saxena R, Kanodia V, Srivastava M. Role of CT paranasal sinuses and diagnostic nasal endoscopy in the treatment modification of chronic rhinosinusitis. Gujarat J Otorhinolar Head Neck Surg. 2010;7(1):7-11.

Geminiani RJ, Vitale RF, Mazer AB, de Camargo Gobbo HP, da Silva Neto JJ, Bolini Lima JC. Comparison between computed tomography and nasal endoscopy in diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. Int Arch Otolaryngol. 2007;11:4.402-5.

Zojaji R, Mirzadeh M, Naghibi S. Comparative evaluation of preoperative CT scan and intraoperative endoscopic sinus surgery findings in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Iran J Radiol 2008;5:77-82.

Gupta SC, Singh M, Jain A, Walia DK. A comparative study of radiological and antroscopic findings in the lesions of maxillary sinus. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;56(1):9-13.

Deosthale NV, Singh B, Khadakkar SP, Harkare VV, Dhoke PR, Dhote KD et al. Effectiveness of Nasal Endoscopy and C.T. Scan of Nose and Paranasal Sinuses in Diagnosing Sino-Nasal Conditions. J Evo Med Dental Sci. 2014;3,(14):3695-3703.

Pokharel M, Karki S, Shrestha BL, Shrestha I, Amatya RCM. Correlations Between Symptoms, Nasal Endoscopy, Computed Tomography and Surgical Findings in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2013;43(3):201-5.






Original Research Articles