Tracheostomy in a tertiary care hospital: epidemiology, indications and complications
Keywords:Airway, Complication, Tracheostomy
Background: Tracheostomy is one of the most frequently performed surgeries in the emergency department, Intensive care units and at bedside in the present scenario. The aim of our study is to outline the frequent indications, to analyse various complications and to evaluate the outcomes of tracheostomy in our setting in our Institution.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of ENT and Head & Neck Surgery, SMGS Hospital, Jammu from January 2018 to January 2020. The cases were recorded from ENT Department and also intensive medical care, intensive neonatal and pediatric care, intensive respiratory care, surgical intensive care units of our institution. We included all the emergency, elective and prophylactic tracheostomies in this group.
Results: Out of 100 patients included in our study, male: female ratio was 2.7:1. 61 (61%) patients were in the age group of 41 to 60 years. The mean age was 43 years. In our study 58 (58%) tracheostomies were done on emergency. 38 (38%) were done electively whereas rest 4 (4%) were done prophylactically. 37 (37%) tracheostomies were done for upper airway obstruction, followed by artificial ventilation done in 36 (36%) patients. The most indication was carcinoma seen in 17 (17%) patient followed by head injury seen in 16 (16%) patients. The most common complication was surgical emphysema seen in 8(8%) tracheostomies followed by haemorrhage in 6 (6%) tracheostomies.
Conclusions: Tracheostomy still remains a life saving procedure in the surgical management of airway if performed timely despite its few complications.
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