Hoarseness of voice-prospective study: etiology, evaluation and treatment
Keywords:Hoarseness, Voice, Vocal, Polyp, Nodule, Benign
Background: Despite advances in medical technologies and improvement in diagnostic armamentarium in laryngology about 20% of cases remain undiagnosed until suspension laryngoscopy. The study was undertaken to identify etiological factors, type of lesions, age and sex distribution, sites of involvement, efficacy of different diagnostic and treatment modalities.
Methods: A prospective study of 45 cases of benign vocal cords lesions was carried out. Patients with hoarseness of voice for >3 weeks were investigated and treated with conservative management and surgery.
Results: Hoarseness of voice presented within 6 months after onset of symptom. The common age of presentation was between 21 to 40 years, with male:female ratio of 1.25:1. Vocal abuse, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) and smoking, were the most common etiological factors. Housewives were most common group. Wide angled 700 telelaryngoscopy showed 80% accuracy rate. Suspension laryngoscopy showed 100% accuracy rate. Involvements of both the vocal cords were more common, vocal cord nodule being the commonest. 70% responded very well to conservative management.
Conclusions: Dysphonia is the most common presenting symptom having vocal cord lesion, non-professional voice user young females are most common sufferers with delay of 6 months in presenting to a laryngologist. Vocal abuse and LPRD are most common aetiologies. Telelaryngoscopy can diagnose up to 80% of them which is cost effective Outpatient Department procedure. 70% of them respond well to medical therapy and voice training. Identification of causative factor and management of them is mandatory for treatment and prevention of recurrence.
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