Clinicopathological study of thyroid swelling and its management
Keywords:Thyroid swelling, Thyroidectomy, Papillary carcinoma, FNAC, Thyroid HPE
Background: There is high prevalence of thyroid lesions in India. In this study, an attempt is made to find out the clinical spectrum of thyroid swellings in central India, diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), appropriate surgical management and to compare it with postoperative histopathological diagnosis so as to determine its role in surgical management.
Methods: In this prospective study, 100 subjects presenting to ENT OPD of GMC, Nagpur during the period from September 2017 to August 2019 with thyroid swelling who were fit to undergo surgery and willing to participate in the study were selected. After detailed evaluation and routine investigations, thyroid function test (TFT), FNAC, ultrasonography (USG) neck, all the subjects underwent required thyroidectomy. The postoperative histopathological examination (HPE) report was correlated with cytological report.
Results: In 100 subjects, majority of subjects were from 4th decade (32%) with female: male ratio=6.14:1. FNAC findings were colloid goiter (61%), nodular goiter (19%), follicular neoplasm (10%), and papillary carcinoma (9%). On HPE, colloid goitre (57%) was most common non-neoplastic lesion and papillary carcinoma (65.21 %) was most common malignant lesion. Hemithyroidectomy (70%) was most common procedure done. Transient hypocalcemia (5%), recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paresis (2%) were the postoperative complications encountered. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of FNAC to diagnose malignancy were 55.6%, 100%, 91%, 100% and 90% respectively.
Conclusions: FNAC is an easy, rapid, reliable, cost-effective, minimally invasive and readily repeatable technique for diagnosis of thyroid swellings. The common false negative diagnosis is seen in follicular pattern cases, cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and papillary microcarcinoma.
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