Incidence of mid facial fractures in armed forces personnel and their families: a retrospective five year study
Keywords:Nasal-orbital-ethmoid complex, Road traffic accident, Midfacial fractures
Background: Incidences of mid facial fractures in armed forces personnel and their families is rising due to increase in motorized population and high speed road traffic. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence, etiology, diagnosis, management and complication of mid facial fractures.
Methods: A 5 year retrospective study was conducted at tertiary dental care center at Pathankot, Bathinda and Kolkata. Total of 511 cases of midfacial fractures were managed at this centre. 87% of patients were managed with open reduction and internal fixation and 13% indirect reduction and conservative management. All patients were followed up for at least 1 year.
Results: 96% patients recovered uneventfully, while 4% patients had post-operative complications such as malocclusion, paraesthesia, enophthalmos, diplopia, facial asymmetry, palpability and exposure of implants.
Conclusions: The midface is composed of wafer thin sheets of cortical bones which get fractured easily. It is very important to obtain near to facial form, function and aesthetics by reconstructing the horizontal and vertical buttresses of face.
Banks P. Killey’s fractures of the middle third of the facial skeleton. Br J Oral Maxillofacial Surg. 1989;27(3):262.
Manson PV, Hooper JE. Structural pillars of facial skeleton: An approach to the management of Lefort fractures, Plast Reconst Surg. 1980;66(1):54-61.
Haug RH, Prather J, Indresan AT. An epidemiologic surgery of facial fractures and concomitant injuries. J Maxillofacial Surg. 1990;48:926-32.
Koorey AJ, Marshall SW, Treasure ET, Langley JD. Incidence of facial fractures resulting in hospitalization in New Zealand from 1979 to 1988. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;21:77-9.
Kieser J, Stephenson S, Liston PN, Tong DC, Langley JD. Serious facial fractures in New Zealand from 1979 to 1998. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;31:206-9.
Torgersen S, Tornes K. Maxillofacial fractures in a Norwegian district. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;21:335-8.
Kovacs AF, Ghahremani M. Minimization of zygomatic complex fractures treatment. Int J Oral Maxillofacial Surg. 2001;30:380-3.
Oji C. Jaw fractures in Enugu, Nigeria, 1985-95. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999;37:106-9.
Adebayo ET, Ajike OS, Adekeye EO. Analysis of the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in Kaduna, Nigeria. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;41:396-400.
Ansari MH. Maxillofacial fractures in Hamedan province, Iran: a retrospective study (1987-2001). J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2004;32:28-34.
Afzelius L, Rose´n C. Facial fractures. Int J Oral Surg. 1980;9:25-32.
Zachariades N, Papademetriou I, Rallis G. Complications associated with rigid internal ﬁxation of facial bone fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1993;51:275-8.