Study of blood groups and throat swab culture in chronic tonsillitis among pediatric age group
Keywords:Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, Chronic tonsillitis, Blood groups
Background: Chronic tonsillitis is a disease of childhood with a peak incidence at 5-6 years of age and the commonest organism being Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS). Accurate diagnosis of streptococcal infection is essential to limit transmission, reduce the complications and period of communicability. To study the association between blood groups and culture findings of throat swab in chronic tonsillitis among pediatric age group is the aim of our study.
Methods: 60 pediatric patients of clinically diagnosed chronic tonsillitis of both genders who attended outpatient department of otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery VIMS, Ballari, Karnataka, India were included in this study on simple random basis. Throat swabs obtained from them were subjected for culture test along with blood grouping and Rh typing.
Results: In our study, among 60 patients, who presented with recurrent episodes of throat pain for duration of <1 year were 31 (51.7%), of 1-3 years were 15 (25%) and of >3 years were 14 (23.3%). 42 patients (70%) had grade 3 tonsillar enlargement, 14 (23.3%) had grade 2 and 4 (6.7%) had grade 4 tonsillar enlargement. 22 were of B positive blood group (36.7%), 19 of O positive (31.7%), 12 of A positive (20%) and 7 patients of AB positive blood group (11.7%).
Conclusions: Statistically significant association is found among school going age group of both genders infected by the Streptococcal species (p<0.05). Patients of O positive blood group were infected more followed by B positive blood group.
Peyton Shirley W, Wooley AL, Wiatrak BJ. Pharyngitis and adenotonsillar disease. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund VL, Niparko JK, Richardson MA, Robbins KT, et al (eds). Cummings Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery. 5th edition. 196rd Volume. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby; 2010: 2782-2802.
Morris DP. “Bacterial biofilm in upper respiratory tract infections. Curr Infec Dis Reports. 2007;9(3):186-92.
Mckerrow WS. Diseases of tonsil. In: Gleeson M, Browning GG, Burton MJ, Clarke R, Hibbert J, Jones NS, et al (eds). Scott-Brown’s Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. 7th edition. 95th Volume. Newyork, NY: Edward Arnold; 2008: 1219-1228.
Gerber MA. Diagnosis of group a beta-haemolytic streptococcal. J Paediatr. 1998;27:269-73.
Paradise JL, Bluestone CD, Bachman RZ, Colborn DK, Bernard BS, Taylor FH, et al. Efficacy of tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection in severely affected children: results of parallel randomized and non-randomized clinical trials. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:674-83.
Bajaj Y, Hore I. Diseases of tonils, tonsillectomy and tonsillotomy . In: Watkinson JC, Clake RW, Aldren CP, Bamiou DE, Irving RM, Kubba H, Saeed SR (eds). Scott-Brown's Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. 8th edition. 38th Volume. Newyork NY: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC; 2018: 435-442.
Bisno AL. Primary care: acute pharyngitis. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:205–11.
Bisno AL. Acute pharyngitis: etiology and diagnosis. Pediatr. 1996;97:949.
Bisno AL. Acute pharyngitis. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(3):205–11.
Edmond KM, Grimwood K, Carlin JB, Chondros P, Hogg GG, Barnett PL. Streptococcal pharyn¬gitis in a paediatric emergency department. Med J Austr. 1996;165(8):420–3.
Brook I, Gober AE. Increased recovery of Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae in association with group a beta haemolytic streptococci in healthy children and those with pharyngo-tonsillitis. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:989-92.
Brook I, Shah K. Bacteriology of adenoids and tonsils in children with recurrent adenotonsillitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2001;110:844-8.
Schulman ST. Streptococcal pharyngitis: diagnostic consider¬ations. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994;13:567.
Randolph MF, Gerber MA, DeMeo KK, Wright L. Effect of antibiotic therapy on the clinical course of streptococcal pharyngitis. J Pediatr. 1985;106:870–5.
Ani A. Study of relationship between blood group and group a beta haemolytic streptococci isloted from from patients with tonsillitis. Iraqui J Sci. 2016;57(2):855-61.
Bhasin MK, Walter H, Danker-Hopte H. The distribution of genetical, morphological and behavioural trials among the peoples on Indian region. New Delhi: Kamla-Raj Publishers; 1992.
Rao MSS, Abraham TT. A retrospective study of blood groups in head and neck malignancies. J Evid Based Med Healthcare. 2018;5(10):908-12.
Mansour AH, Mohammed AM, Anwar R, Elzafrany ME, Omar NM. ABO blood group and risk of malignancies in egyptians. Int J Cancer Res. 2014;10(2):81-95.
Regan F, Gabriel I. Blood groups, blood components and alternatives to transfusion. In: Gleeson M, Browning GG, Burton MJ, Clarke R, Hibbert J, Jones NS, et al (eds). Scott-Brown's Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. 7th edition. 121st Volume. Newyork, NY: Edward Arnold; 2008: 253.
Fadhil KA. Clinical and immunological study in Rheumatic fever and Rheumatic heart Disease. M.Sc. Thesis. Baghdad University, Iraq. 1989.