Clinicopathological profile of hoarseness of voice

Abhinav Rathi, Shalaka Sharma


Background: Hoarseness of voice is one of the most common symptoms bringing a patient to an ear, nose and throat (ENT) Out Patient Department (OPD). Hoarseness of voice may arise from wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild infections to fatal malignancies. Hence a study was done to know the incidence, etiology, predisposing factors and clinical profile of patients presenting with hoarseness of voice.

Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of ENT, JNU IMSRC, Jaipur from Aug 2017 to July 2018. All the patients coming to ENT OPD with complaint of hoarseness of voice during that period underwent detailed history, clinical examination and routine investigations to know the exact cause of hoarseness.  

Results: A total of 126 cases with male:female ratio of 1.68:1 were analyzed. Patients age ranged from 13 to 82 years with majority of patients presenting in 4th decade. Most commonly hoarseness was seen in labourers (42.06%) with most common cause being vocal cord paralysis (23.01%) and majority of patients having smoking as the commonest predisposing factor (65%).

Conclusions: The etiology of hoarseness varies from trivial infections to serious malignancies. In our tertiary centre which is at the outskirts of the city majority of the patients coming to OPD are from rural area and most of these patients are labourers by occupation and have a habit of smoking bidis.


Hoarseness, Voice, Etiology, Malignancies

Full Text:



Hoarseness. NIDCD. 2015. Available at: Accessed on 24 August 2017.

Johns MM, Sataloff RT, Merati AL, Rosen CA. Shortfalls of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery's Clinical practice guideline: Hoarseness (Dysphonia). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;143(2):175-7.

Cohen SM, Kim J, Roy N, Asche C, Courey M. Prevalence and causes of dysphonia in a large treatment-seeking population. The Laryngoscope. February 2012;122(2):343-8.

Williams NR. Occupational groups at risk for voice disorders: A review of the literature. Occup Med. 2003;53(7):456-60.

Verdolini K, Ramig LO. Review: occupational risks for voice problems. Logopedic Phoniatric Vocol. 2001;26(1):37-46.

Banjara H, Varsha M, Singh D, Gupta A. Hoarseness of voice:A Retrospective Study of 251 Cases. Int J Phonosurg Laryngol. 2011;1(1):21-7.

Baitha S, Raizada RM, Kennedy Singh AK, Puttewar MP, Chaturvedi VN. Clinical profile of hoarsens of voice. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;54(1):14-8.

Herrington-Hall BL, Lee L, Stemple JC, Niemi KR, MC Hone MM. Description of laryngeal pathologies by age, sex, and occupation in a treatment-seeking sample. J Speech Hear Disord. 1988;53:57-64.

Mehta AS. An etiological study of hoarseness of voice. A thesis submitted for master of surgery (Otorhinolaryngology), Gujarat University. 1985.

Parikh N. Aetiology study of 100 cases of hoarseness of voice. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;43(2):71-3.

Deshmukh. Clinical study of hoarseness of voice. A thesis submitted for master of surgery (Otorhinolaryngology), Gujarat University, 1976.

Kumar H, Seth S, Kishore D. Aetiological study of 100 cases of hoarseness of voice. Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;8(1):23.

The spectrum of vocal dysfunction. In: Koufman J, Isaacson G (eds). The otolaryngologic clinics of North America: voice disorders. Philadelphia. WB Saunders; 1991: 47.

Batra K, Motwani G, Sagar PC. Functional voice disorders and their occurrence in 100 patients of hoarseness as seen on fibreoptic laryngoscopy. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;56(2):91-5.

Pal KS, Kaushal AK, Nagpure PS, Agarwal G. Etiopathological Study of 100 Patients of Hoarseness of Voice: Ina Rural Based Hospital Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014;66(1):40-5.

Srivastava RN, Sardana DS, Dewan VK. A clinical study of laryngeal paralysis. Indian J Otolaryngol. 1979;31(1):41.

Stell and Maran’s head and neck surgery. In: Watkinson JC, Gaze MN Wilson JA. 4th edn. BJS; 1978: 361.