Hoarseness of voice – an institutional study
Keywords:Hoarseness, Voice, Flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy, Vocal nodule, Vocal cord palsy, Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease
Background: Hoarseness is one of the earliest signal of local and systemic disease. It should be emphasized that hoarseness is not a disease in itself but a symptom of disease or disturbance of larynx or laryngeal innervation. The aim of the study was to analyse various causes and conditions associated with hoarseness of voice.
Methods: We studied 150 patients in a prospective randomised study with inclusion criteria of hoarseness of voice, attending otolaryngology outpatient department of Dayanand medical college and hospital, Ludhiana, irrespective of their age, sex and duration of disease. No exclusion criteria were applied. All the routine investigations like Hb, BT, CT, TLC, DLC, urine-for albumin and sugar were carried out in all patients. X-ray chest- PA view and X-Ray soft tissue neck- AP and lateral view were done when required. Larynx was examined by flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy followed by biopsy if suspicious looking area was seen. 4% lignocaine spray was used orally and nasally to provide local anaesthesia.
Results: In the present study of 150 cases 87 were males and 63 were females with M:F ratio of 1.4:1 and age ranged from 10–90 years with majority of cases in 4th and 6th decade of their life. All patients had history of hoarseness of voice with most of patients having duration of disease between one month to one year. On flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy 27% of cases showed normal study, vocal nodule was most common, seen in 20% of cases, 10% showed vocal cord palsy and 10% had laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Bilateral lesion (72.6%) predominated overall, with left sided (15.2%) of larynx affected more as compared to right side (12%).
Conclusions: Flexible fibreoptic laryngoscopy is an effective alternative for diagnosis of laryngeal lesions and various causes of hoarseness of voice. Vocal nodule has been found as the commonest cause of hoarseness of voice followed by vocal cord palsy and laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.
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