DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20191719

Olfactory identification in HIV positive adults living in Benin city, Nigeria

Oghogho E. Braimah, Ngozi C. Onyeagwara

Abstract


Background: Olfactory function has been shown to be impaired in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The advent of anti-retroviral therapy has resulted in prolonged survival of these patients requiring increased focus on factors that affect their quality of life including olfaction.

Methods: The study was conducted at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. Consenting adult HIV positive patients were assisted to fill a proforma after which they had rigid nasendoscopy done to rule out peripheral causes of anosmia such as nasal infections, nasal polyps and tumours. The brief smell identification test (BSIT) scratch and sniff tests were then administered to those included in the study.  The same procedure was repeated with consenting HIV negative subjects serving as control.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference between olfactory identification ability of HIV positive and HIV negative adults (p=0.001). Cases were 2.92 times likely to have abnormal smell identification abilities than controls.

Conclusions: Olfactory identification ability is reduced in PLWHA relative to the HIV negative population.


Keywords


BSIT, HIV, Nasendoscopy, Olfactory identification, PLWHA

Full Text:

PDF

References


Benignus VA, Prah JD. Olfaction: Anatomy, Physiology and Behavior. Environ Health Perspect. 1982;44:15–21.

Doty RL, Kamath V. The influences of age on olfaction:a review Front Psychol. 2014;5:20

Croy I, Negoias S, Novakora L, Landis BN, Hummel T. Learning about the functions of the olfactory system from people without a sense of smell. PLoS ONE 2012;7(3):e33365.

Croy I, Mohr T, Weidner K, Hummel T, Junge Hoffmeister J. Mother-Child bonding is associated with the maternal perception of the child’s body odour. Physiol Behav. 2019;198;151-7.

Fasunla AJ, Daniel A, Nwankwo U, Kuti KM, Nwaorgu OG, Akinyinka OO. Evaluation of Olfactory and Gustatory Function of HIV Infected Women. AIDS Res Treatment. 2016;(2016):2045383.

World Health Organisation. HIV/AIDS Factsheet No 360 Nov. 2015 WHO media centre. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs360/en/. Accessed on 23 March 2016.

National Agency for the Control of AIDS. National HIV/AIDS Epidemiology and Impact Analysis (NHEIA) Reports. Federal Republic of Nigeria; 2014

Lindl KA, Marks DR, Kolson DL, Jordan-Sciutto KL. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders: pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities. J Neuroimmune. Pharmacol. 2010;5:294-309.

Amali A, Sazgar A, Langeroudi M, Saedi B. Olfactory disorders in HIV positive patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;147(2):252.

Heald AE, Schiffman SS. Taste and smell, neglected senses that contribute to the malnutrition of AIDS. NC Med J. 1997;58:100-4.

Graham CS, Graham BG, Bartlett JA, Heald AE, Schiffimann SS. Taste and smell losses in HIV infected patients. Physiol Behav. 1995;58:287-93

Vance D, Humphrey S. A-14 A Brief Olfactory Detection Test of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Three Case Studies. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2014;29(6):508-9.

Richardson, JTE, Zucco, MG. Cognition and olfaction: A review Psychol Bull. 1989 May;105(3):352-60.

Hummel T, Whitcroft KL, Andrews P, Altundag A, Cinghi C, Costanzo RM, et al. Position paper on olfactory dysfunction Rhinol Suppl. 2017 54(26):1-30.

Larsson M, Nilsson LG, Olofsson J, Nordin S. Demographic and cognitive predictors of odor identification-Evidence from a population-based study. Chem Senses. 2004;29:547-54.

Fagundo AB, Jiménez-Murcia S, Giner-Bartolomé C, Islam MA, de la Torre R, Pastor A, et al. Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(6):e0130319

Pozniak A, Rackstraw S, Deayton J, Barber T, Taylor S, Manji H, et al. HIV-associated neurocognitive disease:case studies and suggestions for diagnosis and management in different patient subgroups. Antivir Ther. 2014;19(1):1-3.

Antinori A, Arendt G, Grant I, Letendre S, Muñoz-Moreno JA, Eggers C, et al. Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder:a consensus report of the mind exchange program. CID. 2012;21;56(7):1004-17.

Doty RL, Marcus A, Lee WW Development of the 12-item Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test. Laryngoscope. 1996;106(3);353-6.

Jaykaran C, Tamoghna B. How to Calculate Sample Size for Different Study Designs in Medical Research. Indian J Psychol Med 2013;35(2):121-6.

Fasunla AJ, Nwankwo U, Adebayo AM. Association between Sex, CD4 Cell Counts, Antiretroviral Medications, and Olfactory and Gustatory Functions of HIV-Infected Adults Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017:194599817733664.

Wehling EI. Cognitive and Olfactory Changes in Aging. Dissertation for the degree philosophiae doctor (PhD) University of Bergen, 2009.

Pinto JM, Schumm LP, Wroblewski KE, Kern DW, McClintock MK. Racial Disparities in Olfactory Loss Among Older Adults in the United States J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(3):323–9.

Heaton RK, Franklin DR, Ellis RJ, McCutchan JA, Letendre SL, LeBlanc S, et al. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy:differences in rates, nature, and predictors. J Neurovirol. 2011;17:3–16.

Hornung DE, Kuntz DB, Bradshaw CB, Siepel DM, Kent PF, Blair DC, et al. The Olfactory Loss That Accompanies an HIV infection. Physiol Behav 1998;64:549-56.

Brody D, Serby M, Etienne N, Kalkstein DS. Olfactory identification deficits in HIV infection Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:248-50.

Vance DE. Olfactory and psychomotor symptoms in HIV and aging potential precursions to cognitive loss. Med Sci Monit. 2007 13:801-801.

Alabi BS, Salami AK, Afolabi A, Dunmade D, Aremu SK, Olawunmi O, et al. Otolaryngologic Manifestations Among Hiv/Aids Patients in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution: An Update Intl. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;14(4):398-403.

Zucco GM, Ingegnen G. Olfactory deficits in HIV infected patients with and without AIDS dementia complex. Physio Behav. 2004;80:669-74.

Lehrner JP, Kryspin Exner I, Vetter N. Higher Olfactory threshold and decreased Odor identification ability in HIV infected persons. Chem Senses. 1995;20:325-8.

Spudich SS, Ances BM. Neurologic Complications of HIV Infection. Top Antivir Med. 2017;25(2):69-76.

Dahl V, Gisslen M, Hagberg L, Peterson J, Shao W, Spudich S, et al. An Example of Genetically Distinct HIV Type 1 Variants in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma During Suppressive Therapy. J Infect Dis. 2014;209(10):1618-22.

Robertson KR, Su Z, Margolis DM, Krambrink A, Havlir DV, Evans S, et al. A5170 Study Team. Neurocognitive effects of treatment interruption in stable HIV-positive patients in an observational cohort. Neurology. 2010;74(16):1260-6.

Custodio N, Escobar J, Altamirano J. Dementia associated with infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. An Fac Med. 2006;67(3):1.

Akolo C, Royal W, Cherner M. Neurocognitive impairment associated with predominantly early stage HIV infection in Abuja, Nigeria. J Neurovirol. 2014;20(4):380-7.

Krut J, Mellberg T, Price RW, Hagberg L, Fuchs D. Biomarker Evidence of Axonal Injury in Neuroasymptomatic HIV-1 Patients. PLoS One. 2014;11;9(2):e88591.

Spudich SS, Ances BM. CROI 2017: Neurologic Complications of HIV Infection Top. Antivir Med. 2017 25(2):69-76.

Liang X, Ding D, Zhao Q, Guo Q, Luo J, Hong Z. Association between olfactory identification and cognitive function in community dwelling elderly: the Shanghai aging study. BMC Neurol. 2016;16:199.

Doty RL. Olfactory dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases: is there a common pathological substrate? Lancet Neurol. 2017;16(6):478-88.

Benea CL, Petrescu A, Moroti-Constantinescu R 2012. HIV Encephalopathy - Now and Then, In: Miscellanea on Encephalopathies, Dr. Radu Tanasescu (Ed.), Croatia. Available at: https://www.intechopen.com/books/miscellanea-on-encephalopathies/hiv-encephalopathy-now-and-then. Accessed on 23 March 2016.