DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20191721

Impact of active smoking on nasal functions in patients with allergic rhinitis

Pratibha Chamarajanagara Bhaskara, Anita Ross, Neha Gupta

Abstract


Background: Allergic rhinitis is an important health problem in view of its prevalence and its impact on patients’ social life, school performance and work productivity. Smoking is known to affect the asthmatic airway inflammation. The additional effect of smoking in impairment of nasal functions in patients with allergic rhinitis is a subject of interest. The aim and objective of this study was to study the effect of active tobacco smoke on mucociliary clearance and olfactory thresholds in allergic rhinitis.

Methods: A descriptive observational pilot study was carried out on 40 patients of allergic rhinitis. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by saccharine transit time and olfactory threshold test was measured by butanol threshold test score.  

Results: The saccharine transit time was significantly prolonged in smokers as compared to nonsmokers. Amongst the subgroups of allergic rhinitis mucociliary clearance was found to be more prolonged with the severity of allergic rhinitis. Butanol threshold test scores were significantly lower in smokers when compared to non- smokers. Amongst the subgroups of allergic rhinitis olfactory threshold was found to be lower with the severity of allergic rhinitis.

Conclusions: In the current study we found that nasal functions were significantly impaired in smokers with allergic rhinitis. This indicates that smoking leads to worsening of symptoms in allergic rhinitis.


Keywords


Allergic rhinitis, Smoking, Saccharine transit time, Butanol threshold test, Nasal mucociliary clearance

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bousquet PJ, Bousquet-Rouanet L, Co Minh HB, Urbinelli R, Allaert FA, Demoly P. ARIA classification of Allergic Rhinitis severity in clinical practice in france. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007;143:163-9.

Cohen NA, Zhang S, Sharp DB, Tamashiro E, Chen B, Sorscher EJ, et al. Cigarette smoke condensate inhibits transepithelial chloride transport and ciliary beat frequency. Laryngoscope. 2009;119(11):2269-74.

Stanley PJ, Wilson R, Greenstone MA, MacWilliam L, Cole PJ. Effect of cigarette smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance and ciliary beat frequency. Thorax. 1986;41:519-23.

Baena-Cagnani, Gómez RM, Baena-Cagnani R, Canonica GW, The impact of environmental tobacco smoke and active tobacco smoking on the development and outcomes of asthma and rhinitis. Current Opinion Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;9(2):136-40.

Topp R, Thefeld W, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J. The effect of Environmental tobacco smoke(ETS) exposure at home or at work on Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Rhinitis in adults. Indoor Air. 2005;15(4):222-7.

Doty RL. Clinical Studies of Olfaction. Chem Senses. 2005;30(1):207–9.

Croy I, Lange K, Krone F, Negoias S, Seo HS, Hummel T. Comparison between Odor Thresholds for Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol and Butanol. Chem Senses. 2009;34:523–7.

Wanner A, Salathe M, O'Riordan TG. Mucociliary clearance in the airways. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154:1868-902.

Isik AC, Yardimci S, Guven C, Avunduk MC, Civelek S. Morphologic alteration induced by short-term smoke exposure in rats. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2007;69:13-7.

Wyatt TA, Gentry-Nielsen MJ., Pavlik JA, Sisson JH. Desensitization of PKA-stimulated ciliary beat frequency in an ethanol-fed rat model of cigarette smoke exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:1998-2004.

Gudis DA, Noam A. Cohen, Cilia Dysfunction. Otolaryngologic Clin N Am. 2010;43(3):461-72.

Gensch E, Gallup M, Sucher A, Li D, Gebremichael A, Lemjabbar H. Tobacco smoke control of mucin production in lung cells requires oxygen radicals AP-1 and JNK. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:39085-93.

Takeyama K, Jung B, Shim J.J, Burgel PR, Dao-Pick T, Ueki IF. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptors is responsible for mucin synthesis induced by cigarette smoke. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;280:L165-72.

Kreindler JL, Jackson AD, Kemp PA, Bridges RJ, Danahay H. Inhibition of chloride secretion in human bronchial epithelial cells by cigarette smoke extract. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2005;288:894-902.

Leopold PL, O'Mahony MJ, Lian XJ, Tilley AE, Harvey B-G, Crystal RG. Smoking Is Associated with Shortened Airway Cilia. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(12):e8157.

Andersen I, Lundqvist G, Jensen PL, Philipson K, Procter DF. Nasal clearance in monozygotic twin. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1974;110:301-5.

Rutland J, Cole PJ. Non-invasive sampling of nasal cilia for measurement of beat frequency and study of ultrastructure. Lancet. 1980;2:564-5.

Sakakura Y, Sasaki Y, Togo Y, Wagner HN, Hornick RB, Schwartz AR, et al. Mucociliary Function during Experimentally Induced Rhinovirus Infection in Man. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1973;82(2):203–11.

Quinlan MF, Salman SD, Swiet DL. Measurement of mucociliary function in man. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1969;99:13-23.

Mehra YN, Mann SBS, Mehra S, Verma A, Mittal A. Cryosurgery in Vasomotor rhinitis:An analysis of 156 patients. Indian J Otolaryngol. 1990;42:95-8.

Yadav J, Ranga RK, Singh J, Gathwala G. Nasal mucociliary clearance in healthy children in a tropical country. Int J Paed Otorhinolaryngol. 2001;57:21-4.

Mahakit P, Pumhirun P. A Preliminary Study of Nasal Mucociliary Clearance in Smokers, Sinusitis and Allergic Rhinitis Patients. Asian Pacific J Allergy Immunol. 1995;13:119-21.

Sun SS, Hsieh JF, Tsai SC, Ho YJ, Kao CH. Evaluation of nasal mucociliary clearance function in allergic rhinitis patients with technetium 99M-labelled macroaggregated albumin rhinoscintigraphy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2002;111(1):77-9.

Proenca M, Fagundes Xavier R. Immediate and short term effects of smoking on nasal muco-ciliary clearance in smokers. Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia. 2011;17(4):172-6.

Stanley PJ, Wilson R, Greenstone MA, MacWilliam L, Cole PJ. Effect of cigarette smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance and ciliary beat frequency. Thorax. 1986;41:519-23.

Mortensen J, Lange P, Jorgen N, Groth S. Lung mucociliary clearance. Eur J Nucl Med. 1994;21:953-61.

Ho JC, Chan KN, Hu WH. The effect of aging on nasal mucociliary clearance, beat frequency, and ultrastructure of respiratory cilia. Am J Respir Cit Care Med. 2001;163:983–8.

Puchell E, Aug F, Pham QT, Bertrand A. Comprasion of methods for measuring nasal mucociliary clearance in man. Acta Otolaryngol. 1981;91:297–303.

Kalogjera L, Dzepina D. Management of Smell Dysfunction Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2012;12:154–62.

Cowart BJ, Flynn-Rodden K, McGeady SJ, Lowry LD. Hyposmia in allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993;91:747–51.