Demography and etiology of congenital sensorineural hearing loss in children
Keywords:Congenital hearing loss, Sensorineural hearing loss, Etiology
Background: The prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is 2-3 per 1000 live births in India, and out of 1000 babies, 1 is having profound degree of hearing loss at birth or in the pre-lingual age group. Hearing loss is categorized as syndromic or non-syndromic hearing loss. The present study was done to identify and diagnose children with SNHL and study the etiological profile, so that all necessary timely precautions may be taken as SNHL in pediatric age group affects not only development of speech and language, but also emotional, social and behavioural development.
Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in Department of ENT of a tertiary care centre, in 50 children with congenital SNHL. Data on epidemiological and etiological factors were collected. All cases were analyzed for detailed history and underwent clinical and audiological assessment.
Results: Majority of cases presented between 2 and 4 years of age, however age of detection of congenital deafness by parents was most commonly observed in 6-12 months of age. Out of 50 cases, the maximum number of cases [14 (28%)] were having history of antenatal complications, 11 (22%) cases were having adverse perinatal and postnatal history, while in remaining cases, the etiological factors remained undetermined. In one case associated syndrome was observed (Van der Hoeve’s syndrome).
Conclusions: The increased occurrence of etiologies in this study was of prenatal origin, followed by perinatal origin. The present study conducted at a tertiary centre reflects the need of 'High risk' registry maintenance with active surveillance and subsequent screening for early detection of hearing loss.
Reddy MVV. Perinatal risk factors for congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Indian J Otol. 2006;12:7-12.
Gorlin RJ, Tonello HV, Cohen MM. Hereditary hearing loss and its syndrome. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995.
Barbi M, Binda S, Caroppo S, Ambrosetti U, Corbetta C, Sergi P. A wider role for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in sensorineural hearing loss. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:39–42.
Jackler RK, Luxford WM, House WF. Congenital Malformations of the inner ear: a classification based on embryogenesis. Laryngoscope. 1987;97:2-14.
Walch C, Anderhuber W, Kole W, Berghold A. Bilateral sensorineural hearing disorder in children: etiology of deafness and evaluation of hearing tests. Int J pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;53(1):31-8.
Sutton GJ, Rowe SJ. Risk factors for childhood sensorineural hearing loss in the Oxford region. Br J Audiol. 1997;1(1):39-54.
Bamiou DE, Macardle B, Bitner-Glinzicz M, Sirimanna T. Aetiological investigations of hearing loss in childhood: a review. Clin Otolaryngol. 2000;25:98–106.
Kalsotra P, Kumar S, Gosh P, Mishra NK, Verma IC. A Study of congenital and early acquired impairment of hearing. J K Sci. 2002;4(3):136-43.
Sanjay K, Prachi G, Ravinder S, Vivek T. Etiological factors for pediatric sensorineural hearing loss. Indian J Otol. 2011;17(4):162-4.
Martin JAM. Aetiological factors relating to childhood deafness in the European community. Audiology. 1981;21:149-58.
Newton VE. Aetiology of bilateral sensori-neural hearing loss in young children. J Laryngolotol. 1985;10:1-57.
Cremers CWRJ, Van Rijn PM, Huygen PLM. The sex-ratio in childhood deafness, an analysis of the male predominance. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1994;30:105–10.
Nikolopoulos TP, O'Donoghue GM, Robinson KL, Holland IM, Ludman C, Gibbin KP. Preoperative radiologic evaluation in cochlear implantation. The Am J otol. 1997;18(6):73-4.
Luiz Rodolpho PLJ, Marina DR, Priscilla VW, Camila AA, Clara MD Ferreira C. Evaluation by imaging methods of cochlear implant candidates: radiological and surgical correlation. Rev Bras Otorrinolaringol. 2008;74(3):395-400.