DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20183444

Demography and etiology of congenital sensorineural hearing loss in children

O. P. Shrivastava, Anuj Gupta

Abstract


Background: The prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is 2-3 per 1000 live births in India, and out of 1000 babies, 1 is having profound degree of hearing loss at birth or in the pre-lingual age group. Hearing loss is categorized as syndromic or non-syndromic hearing loss. The present study was done to identify and diagnose children with SNHL and study the etiological profile, so that all necessary timely precautions may be taken as SNHL in pediatric age group affects not only development of speech and language, but also emotional, social and behavioural development.

Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in Department of ENT of a tertiary care centre, in 50 children with congenital SNHL. Data on epidemiological and etiological factors were collected. All cases were analyzed for detailed history and underwent clinical and audiological assessment.  

Results: Majority of cases presented between 2 and 4 years of age, however age of detection of congenital deafness by parents was most commonly observed in 6-12 months of age. Out of 50 cases, the maximum number of cases [14 (28%)] were having history of antenatal complications, 11 (22%) cases were having adverse perinatal and postnatal history, while in remaining cases, the etiological factors remained undetermined. In one case associated syndrome was observed (Van der Hoeve’s syndrome).

Conclusions: The increased occurrence of etiologies in this study was of prenatal origin, followed by perinatal origin. The present study conducted at a tertiary centre reflects the need of 'High risk' registry maintenance with active surveillance and subsequent screening for early detection of hearing loss.

 


Keywords


Congenital hearing loss, Sensorineural hearing loss, Etiology

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